Aromatase inhibitors evoke periorbital allodynia in mice via calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptors in Schwann cells

Submitted: 24 March 2024
Accepted: 20 May 2024
Published: 18 June 2024
Abstract Views: 356
PDF: 145
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Background: Treatment with the currently recommended aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for adjuvant endocrine treatment of estrogen receptorpositive breast cancer is associated with debilitating musculoskeletal pain symptoms (AIMS) and headache. Recent evidence suggests that the proalgesic channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is implicated in AIMS. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms, including TRPA1, implicated in periorbital mechanical allodynia (PMA), a surrogate of headache-like pain, evoked by AIs in mice.
Methods: C57BL6/J mice were treated with intragastric letrozole (0.05-0.5 mg/kg), exemestane (1-5 mg/kg) or anastrozole (0.02-0.2 mg/kg) and were evaluated by applying von Frey filaments to the periorbital region over the rostral portion of the eye. Some mice were pretreated (subcutaneous in the periorbital area) with receptor, channel, or enzyme inhibitors. PMA was also investigated in mice with selective silencing of Trpa1 and receptor activity modifying protein 1 [Ramp1, the component of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptor required for its functioning] in Schwann cells (Plp-Cre+-Trpa1fl/fl and Plp-Cre+-Ramp1fl/fl mice, respectively) or trigeminal neurons (Adv-Cre+- Trpa1fl/fl and Adv- Cre+- Ramp1fl/fl mice, respectively).
Results: Letrozole dose-dependently produced PMA that was attenuated by a TRPA1 antagonist (A967079) or a CGRP receptor antagonist (olcegepant), whereas indomethacin was ineffective. Selective silencing of Trpa1 in both Schwann cells and trigeminal neurons reduced letrozole- evoked PMA. Silencing of Ramp1 in Schwann cells, but not in trigeminal neurons, attenuated PMA. Inhibition of the intracellular pathway known to promote PMA by CGRP action in Schwann cells, including adenylyl cyclase (SQ-22536), nitric oxide synthase (L-NG-Nitro arginine methyl ester), and oxidative stress (N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone) inhibitors reduced letrozole-evoked PMA. PMA evoked by exemestane (1, 5, 10 mg/kg i.g.) or anastrozole (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg i.g.) Was also markedly reduced in mice with selective silencing of TRPA1 in Schwann cells and nociceptors.
Conclusions: Data indicate that letrozole, targeting TRPA1 in peptidergic nerve terminals, releases CGRP that engages its receptor in adjacent Schwann cells to trigger a complex intracellular pathway that results in TRPA1 activation and the ensuing ROS release to sustain PMA. Should these mechanisms be present in patients, their inhibition may ameliorate cephalic mechanical allodynia associated with aromatase inhibitors-induced headaches.

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1.
Marini M, Souza Monteiro de Araujo D, Chieca M, Bellantoni E, de Siena G, Mastricci A, Scuffi I, Tesi M, Pensieri P, Nassini R, De Logu F, Landini L. Aromatase inhibitors evoke periorbital allodynia in mice via calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptors in Schwann cells. Confinia Cephalal [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 18 [cited 2024 Jul. 25];34(1). Available from: https://www.confiniacephalalgica.com/site/article/view/15763